regional nationalism

regional nationalism
   The constitution of 1978 "guarantees the right to autonomy of the nationalities and regions which form [the Spanish Nation]", without being specific about the distinction between nationalities and regions. In practice, the term "regional nationalism" normally refers to the three so-called "historic nationalities", those of Galicia, Catalonia and the Basque country (Euskadi). Catalanism slowly evolved in the nineteenth century from moderate regionalism and a cultural revival (the Renaixença) into a fully fledged nationalism. Its class base, initially bourgeois, expanded during the Second Republic, when a party representing the Catalanist left gained control of the Generalitat. Under Franco, all political manifestations of Catalan culture were silenced, though a slow underground revival began. By the time of Franco's death, Catalanism had become a movement transcending classes, parties, and generations, which led to the reestablishment of the Generalitat in 1977. Since then, even centralist parties in Catalonia have had to reshape their names and agendas to accommodate regional aspirations. After the approval of the Statute of Autonomy and the ensuing regional elections (1980), the Generalitat became dominated by the centre-right nationalist coalition CiU. The Catalan language has been the core of most aspects of Catalan nationalism, and has experienced a revival unparalleled among other stateless nations. A law of language normalization was passed in 1983 to regulate its public use.
   By contrast, Basque nationalism lacked since its beginnings a similar cultural cohesiveness. The nationalist PNV focused initially on language, race and religion as unifying principles, but the debate was radically altered by the emergence of the younger militants of ETA in 1959. In practice, it was difficult to mobilize support on a purely ethniccultural basis, since only a minority spoke—and still speak—Basque. As ETA turned to Marxism and class mobilization, appeals to ethnicity became impracticable, since most workers were non-Basque immigrants. ETA's support, however, increased as the Franco regime's legitimacy declined, and the organization recruited its members on the basis of patriotic commitment and resistance to repression, rather than ethnic considerations. Nevertheless, differing conceptions of Basque identity led to internal conflicts within ETA and nationalist circles. Basque nationalism dramatically expanded its basis of support during the transition to democracy (1975–82). By the time the Statute of Autonomy was approved in 1980, one section of ETA (ETApm) had virtually abandoned the armed struggle, and it confirmed this stance in 1982. By 1986, four main nationalist parties were competing for the electorate: the far-left pro-independence Herri Batasuna, the left nationalists of Euskadiko Ezkerra (Basque Left), the more moderate Eusko Alkartasuna and the historic centre-right PNV Together they normally secure the majority of votes, at least in Vizcaya and Guipuzcoa (where they often win over 70 percent).
   Galician nationalism, on the other hand, has never been a mass movement until quite recently. Its origins lie in the nineteenth-century Rexurdimento (Renaissance), a largely urban literary revival which rediscovered the Galician roots of Portuguese, and mythified the region's Celtic past. With urbanization and modernization, nationalism slowly expanded, but only in the 1990s has the Bloque National Gallego (BNG-Galician National Bloc) gained consistent percentages at regional elections (18.7 percent and thirteen seats in the 1993 elections).
   Further reading
   - Conversi, D. (1997) The Basques, the Catalans, and Spain: Alternative Routes to Nationalist Mobilization, London: Hurst.
   - Hooper, J. (1995) The New Spaniards, Harmondsworth: Penguin (chapters 26–30 give an excellent account of the dynamics of regional nationalism).

Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture. 2013.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • regional parties —    Although regionalist groups have existed since at least the First Republic (1873–4), their proliferation and institutionalization is largely a consequence of the transformation of Spain into a quasi federal state following the approval of the… …   Encyclopedia of contemporary Spanish culture

  • Nationalism — Part of a series on Nationalism …   Wikipedia

  • Nationalism —    Modern nationalism is usually the demand of a nation or large group of people to have its own independent state or at least to have the right to exercise its own cultural, social, educational, and other characteristics. Thus, the nation… …   Historical Dictionary of the Kurds

  • Regional tartans of Canada — All of Canada s provinces and territories, except for Nunavut, have regional tartans, as do many other regional divisions in Canada. Tartans were first brought to Canada by Scottish settlers; the first province to adopt one officially was Nova… …   Wikipedia

  • nationalism —   the placing, by the individual, of national interests over and above those of the individual, regional, or global. Can exist under all political, social and economic conditions, and across societal structures such as class …   Geography glossary

  • Cornish nationalism — Cornish nationalists advocate either greater autonomy within England; a split to become the United Kingdom s fifth home nation; or status as a Crown Dependency equivalent to the Isle of Man. (UK shown in green) …   Wikipedia

  • Marathi nationalism — or regionalism refers to a nationalist stance applied to Maharashtra and the Indo Aryan ethnic Marathi people who inhabit the ethno linguistic region of Maharashtra[1], which was created after the linguistic reorganization of provinces in India… …   Wikipedia

  • Breton nationalism — is the nationalism of the traditional province of Brittany in France. Brittany is considered to be one of the six Celtic nations (along with Cornwall, Ireland, Wales, the Isle of Man and Scotland). Like the nationalism of many neighbouring… …   Wikipedia

  • Pakistani nationalism — Flag of Pakistan. Pakistani nationalism refers to the political, cultural, linguistic, historical and religious expression of patriotism by people of Pakistan, of pride in the history, culture, identity and heritage of Pakistan, and visions for… …   Wikipedia

  • Indian nationalism — refers to the consciousness and expression of political, social, religious and ethnic influences that help mould Indian national consciousness.Indian Nationalism describes the many underlying forces that moulded the Indian independence movement,… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”